As heirs of the kingdom of heaven we not only have great privilege but we also have duties to perform.
If you are following Jesus and understand what he taught, you will probably already see yourself as set free and adopted as an heir in his kingdom. Paul makes this clear in his letters to the churches. For example, in Galatians 4:7 he writes, ‘You are no longer a slave, but God’s child; and since you are his child, God has made you also an heir.’ But sometimes, although we know we are heirs and inherit life in all its fullness, we forget that there are also duties attached to adoption. This becomes much clearer when we think about adoption as it was practised in the Roman world 2000 years ago.
The kind of adoption that would have been familiar to Paul was unlike adoption today. The Romans didn’t make a habit of adopting orphans. Unwanted babies were often left in the countryside to die, this was regarded as a normal way of disposing of inconvenient infants. It’s a shocking thought today, but 2000 years ago it was normal.
The Wikipedia article Adoption in ancient Rome explains, ‘Adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class … Adoption served to cement ties between families, thus fostering and reinforcing alliances. In the Imperial period, the system also acted as a mechanism for ensuring a smooth succession, the emperor taking his chosen successor as his adopted son.’ The photo below is part of a statue of Octavius who was adopted by Julius Caesar and became the Emperor Augustus.
This is why we can call the Almighty ‘Father’, or even ‘Daddy’. Jesus came to reveal the Father to us, he told his disciples, ‘If you have seen me you have seen the father’. We have the joy and privilege of becoming the adopted children of the Mighty One, and we have his power and his authority. But we need to understand that as heirs of the kingdom of heaven (co-heirs with Christ), we not only have great privilege but we also have duties to perform. It’s our function to carry on our Father’s work. What is that?
Think about Roman inheritance again for a moment. When the Emperor (or any high ranking official, army officer, wealthy business man etc) wanted to ensure his work would be continued, he would adopt an heir, not an infant, but someone already old enough to show the necessary aptitude and inclination for the work. The heir was adopted expressly to continue his new father’s work.
We know we are adopted, and we know we are heirs to the kingdom, to the power and also to the glory. We share these things in and with Christ. But sometimes we forget that it is our role and purpose as heirs to continue our Father’s work in this world. We are to be redeemers of the lost and broken, lovers of those around us (even our enemies), forgivers of wrongdoers, even justifiers of the guilty, providers of good things. What does it mean for us to redeem, love, forgive, justify and provide? Think about it in terms of things as well as people. If it’s broken, fix it; if it’s missing, replace it; if it’s overgrown with weeds, dig it and plant flowers. If you need permission to do some of these things, have the necessary conversations. If people are lonely, spend time with them; if they’re hungry, feed them. Speak words of life, be motivated by love, bless others abundantly, be the message, speak the truth. Be ‘good news’.
Most churches in western society have some form of communion service, based on the Bible’s accounts of the final meal that Jesus ate with his disciples. This usually takes the form of a well defined ritual involving bread and wine or fruit juice. But that is not the way Jesus and his followers would have eaten.
That final meal was a Jewish Passover and has special significance, but Jesus typically ate with friends in a home, in fields, or on a journey.
Reading about church life in the book of Acts, it’s clear that the norm for the early church was that when they met (usually in someone’s home) a normal meal was part of the process. OpenBible has a list of references about eating together. Bear in mind that ‘breaking bread together’ was a normal way of saying ‘eating together’. The people would have remembered Jesus as they ate bread and drank wine as part of normal life.
Dispense with wafer-and-sip Holy Communion and promote breaking of bread with simple Agape meals (love feasts) from house to house, that believers take with glad hearts, ‘and the Lord added to His numbers daily’. The Lord served roast lamb, bitter herbs, bread and wine ‘in a house’ for the Last Supper. Father God had lunch with Abraham under a tree and discussed Sarah’s pregnancy, Sodom’s ruin and Lot’s rescue plan. Acts 2:46-47; 1 Cor.11:20-23; Gen Chap 18
So – why does this matter?
When we eat a meal together everyone contributes to the conversation. We serve one another (‘Would you pass the potato please? Thanks.’) We smile and laugh, we become informal, we enjoy the flavours and the aromas. It’s a fun occasion and everybody, even the youngest, plays an active part. This is a time of bonding, especially when we regularly eat with the same group of people.
If your church has Small Groups, consider eating a meal together when you meet. Simple is good, bring and share, visit everyone’s home in turn, don’t make this into a complex or arduous task for anyone. If there are no small groups just get together regularly as friends. Let the Holy Spirit lead you in this as in everything. Be flexible, don’t make rules, keep it really simple and easy. Meet as often as you can, invite friends who are not yet following Jesus, invite people who have nowhere to go or are lonely or short of money to buy food. Be the good news in the neighbourhood.
What is preventing you from sharing a meal with others?
Who are you going to invite to join you?
Church is a family; will eating together make you more or less like a family?
Love always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres
Whatever you choose to celebrate at this time of year, we’d like to bless you in Jesus’ name, that you will be able to enjoy good company and that excellent things may overflow for you in ways expected and unexpected. (For more, scroll down…)
More about the picture – The photo shows Dollar Street near the centre of Cirencester, taken on 10th December after the previous night’s snow. We moved to Cirencester in April this year, and the photo shows part of our walking route to the town centre. (You can download larger versions here – Portrait – Landscape.)
More about love – Jesus came to bring good news; in fact, he himself is the Good News. He came because he loves people; he wants us to know him and love him; he wants us to love one another, too. Here’s a description of love at its finest:
Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It does not dishonour others, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.
Jesus is love personified. Here’s one of the outrageous things he did as a result of that love:
A religious leader called Simon invited Jesus to dinner. In the town there was a woman who had broken the religious laws by doing some pretty shameful things. She made her way to Simon’s house and crept in, coming up behind Jesus at the dinner table (in those days people reclined on a couch to eat). She was crying quietly, and some of her tears fell on Jesus’ feet; she wiped them away with her hair and poured perfume on his feet and kept kissing them.
Simon saw all this and thought to himself, ‘If this man, Jesus, had any idea what kind of life this woman leads, he wouldn’t have let her touch him like this. It’s disgraceful’.
Jesus said, ‘Simon – I have something to tell you’.
Simon asked, ‘What is it?’
And Jesus told a story to make the point clear. He said, ‘Two men were in debt with the bank, one owed half a million, the other £50k. Neither of them could pay, and the bank manager wrote off both debts. Which of them felt most favoured by the bank manager?’
‘Well, I suppose the one who was let off the bigger debt’, said Simon.
‘Right’, Jesus exclaimed. He looked at the woman – ‘See this woman? When I arrived in your house you didn’t provide the customary foot-washing water, but she washed my feet with tears and dried them with her hair. You didn’t give me the customary kiss of greeting, but she hasn’t stopped kissing my feet. Nor did you put the customary oil on my head, but she’s poured perfume onto my feet. Her wrong behaviour has been forgiven and her love demonstrates it. But people who have been forgiven little, love little.’
Turning back to the woman he told her, ‘Every wrong thing you did is forgiven. Your trust has made you perfectly safe; go in complete peace.’
So – If you want people to love you more (and who doesn’t), try forgiving them. Let them off the hook. Be like Jesus; set them free.
Engage with the people around us as people of peace
“What if we read the Bible through the eyes of a revolutionary?” – George Barna
In his book, ‘Revolution’ (2012), George Barna suggests that if Christians want to be more effective, they need to read the Bible in a new way – as revolutionaries. In my own words, here are some of the attributes he ascribes to revolutionary believers.
Live the revolution; it’s a way of life. Read the Bible not just to see what it says, or to memorise it, or to study it. Read it in order to actually do what it says.
Victory through engagement, promoting peace. In other words, if we read the Bible through the eyes of a revolutionary we will do what Jesus did; we will engage with the people around us as people of peace. We will enter their culture, on their terms, to bring them the best news possible – that they are loved by a powerful presence who wants a personal relationship with them.
Motivated by love and obedience. We will not only tell people they are loved, we will show them. A revolutionary follower of Jesus will listen to the lonely, feed the hungry, support the weak, heal the sick, take in the orphan and the homeless. If people engage with revolutionary readers of the Bible they will know they are loved.
Take orders from Papa, accept he’s in charge and listen. To be a revolutionary means paying attention to the Holy Spirit all the time and every day. As he whispers to us, ‘Go there’, ‘Speak to that person’, ‘Invite those people to dinner’ – the revolutionary believer will just do it.
Leadership. Doing what’s right. Revolutionaries don’t lead by giving orders, they lead by going in front. Set an example by doing what you read in the Bible and inviting others to join you.
Internal politics are absent. A revolutionary has no agenda or goal other than the revolution itself. Jesus’ revolution is about turning the world upside down. If you want to lead, learn to be a servant or even a slave. If you want to be rich, keep giving things away. If you want to be eloquent listen a lot and speak little. If you want to be strong, strive to be weak. If you want to be wise, be willing to appear foolish.
A different dimension. In the end, to be an effective revolutionary you will need to see far beyond everyday things and events. Grapple with the spiritual realities that Jesus invites us to engage with. These have nothing to do with the way the world behaves or speaks or thinks. Find that different dimension.
The parable of the sower may begin a little differently
The Tyndale Greek New Testament will be published on 15th November 2017, just three days from now. This is a rare event and will provide a new source for Koine Greek scholars and translators of the New Testament.
The new version sticks to the earliest Greek sources and draws on the most up-to-date research and scholarship available. The publishers write:
The Greek New Testament holds a special place in Christian thinking as the mouthpiece for God’s revelation of the Gospel and of Jesus Christ. While there are a few trusted Greek texts currently in print, significant advances have been made in Greek transmission studies of the New Testament since a standard text was last adopted in 1975.
Here’s one example of the way the new version may affect future translations. The parable of the sower may begin a little differently, simply because of the placing of a paragraph mark in the early manuscripts. It will take a long time for changes like this to feed through into the modern language Bibles we can buy and read, and translators may or may not decide to make changes. Watch this space!
We take apart the first section of Hebrews 13:17 and put it together again, examining each word and the range of possible meanings before writing out the sense in English. There are cultural, historical and political reasons for the standard translations of this verse, but the verse is capable of different treatment.
Before beginning a trawl through the New Testament to study church leadership, I’d like to take a look at the verse in Hebrews that Donna and I discussed. Also, to set the scene, there’s a basic point to make first.
As I mentioned in that previous post, any attempt at translation from one language to another will be informed by the translator’s existing understanding of the subject matter.
When the translation is from New Testament Koine Greek to modern English, this understanding must be based on the flavour of the the rest of the New Testament. In particular, translating a verse about leadership will depend in part on how we understand leadership in the life of the church.
My understanding of this is that Jesus is head of the church (Colossians 1:18), that none of us should be called ‘Rabbi’, ‘Master’ or ‘Teacher’ (Matthew 23:8), that few should teach (James 3:1), that we are to edify and encourage one another (2 Corinthians 13:11), and that the church is built by Jesus himself (Matthew 16:18) as every part works together (Ephesians 4:15-16). As I work through the series of articles that will be my default position.
Analysing the verse – So now let’s look at Hebrews 13:17. We’ll take it word by word and then put the words together. I’m going to use the BibleHub parallel versions to see how the verse is usually translated, and the BibleHub Greek interlinear as a starting point for understanding the Greek. These are convenient as you can click through to check them yourselves.
(Notice that there is no word for ‘authority’ in the Greek. This was added to the NIV by the translators. Check other translations, the word is simply not there.)
πείθεσθε – This is the first Greek word in the verse, it’s pronounced ‘peithesthe’ and is usually translated ‘obey’. This is the only time the verb is used in this form in the entire New Testament but including other forms the verb occurs 53 times. The Strong’s number is 3982.
‘Obey’ is by no means the necessary sense, the core meaning is ‘persuade’, ‘urge’ or ‘have confidence in’ and the root is from ‘pistis’ (πίστις) meaning ‘faith’. See, for example, Matthew 27:20 in the sense ‘persuaded’, Galatians 1:10 in the sense ‘seek favour or persuade’, Romans 8:38 ‘persuaded’ or ‘convinced’ and 2 Corinthians 2:3 ‘having confidence’ or ‘trusting’.
When Paul wrote 2 Corinthians 2:3 he did not mean ‘I obey all of you’ but ‘I have confidence in all of you’.
τοῖς – A form of the Greek definite article, meaning ‘the’ and applying to the next word, ‘leaders’.
ἡγουμένοις – This is pronounced ‘hēgoumenois’ and is usually translated ‘leaders’. Once again the word is only found once in this particular form but there are 28 uses of the word including other forms. The Strong’s number is 2233.
The range of possible meanings include someone who leads, thinks, has an opinion, supposes or considers. And we need to be careful here because the English word ‘lead’ has at least two senses. It may mean ‘to be ahead’ (like someone running a race), or it may mean ‘to manage’ or ‘control’ (like a company CEO or a Prime Minister).
Other forms of this word are used to mean ‘regard’, ‘think’ or ‘esteem’ (Philippians 2:6, 2 Corinthians 9:5) and ‘leader’ or ‘chief’ (Luke 22:26). The verse in Luke is telling, because Jesus is saying that if you are going to be a leader you should behave much more like a servant.
ὑμῶν, καὶ – These words are the pronoun ‘your’ (modifying the previous word, so ‘your leaders’) and the connecting word ‘and’.
ὑπείκετε – This word is a Greek verb, it’s pronounced ‘hypeikete’ and the common translation is ‘submit’. This is the only time it appears in the New Testament, the Strong’s number is 5226 and it means ‘retire’, ‘withdraw’ or ‘submit’.
The sense is not necessarily submit as in submitting to the law or surrendering in battle. It is just as likely that it suggests giving way, holding back or making space.
How can we assemble this? – Although we haven’t examined the rest of the verse yet, we have enough to put the first part into everyday English. So here’s my first stab at it.
‘Trust those who lead the way for you and don’t hold them back.’
But any translation must fit its context, so now let’s take a look at that. The writer wants to make some final remarks as he reaches the end of his letter. My friend Sean pointed out that the leaders are also mentioned in Hebrews 13:7 . They spoke Christ (the Word of the Most High) and the writer urges his readers to consider the results of the way they live and also to imitate their faith.
This suggests that these leaders are indeed leading by example, not by command. Just like the cloud of witnesses in chapter 11 and the beginning of chapter 12, these are living witnesses to the right way to live and the right way to believe. ‘Trust those who lead the way for you and don’t hold them back’ Don’t interrupt them, don’t argue with them, hear them out when they speak in a meeting, live the same way they do, believe the same way they do.
Why the normal translation? – All of this leaves a question hanging. Why are these Greek words assigned the meanings ‘obey’, ‘leaders’ and ‘submit’ in most translations? We have seen that they just as naturally suggest ‘trust’, ‘those who lead the way’ and ‘giving way’.
The answer, I believe, is that we are used to the standard translation. Early English Bibles were intended to support the clergy/laity system and also the rule of the king as head of the Church of England. The Wycliffe translation makes this very clear – ‘Obey ye to your sovereigns, and be ye subject to them’ – a strongly political statement! Because we are used to the idea of hierarchical church leadership of one form or another we rarely feel free to translate this passage differently.
But the Holy Spirit is always leading us on into fresh pastures. Perhaps the old way of viewing this verse is not in line with what he is saying to the church today.
‘The Message’ puts it much better, ‘Be responsive to your pastoral leaders. Listen to their counsel.’
That’s it for now, this blog article is already long. Next time we’ll work through the rest of verse 17 and try to put the entire thing together.
Should we translate the Bible according to tradition or according to Holy Spirit guidance?
If we are being shown something new about church life, should we re-examine passages that no longer seem to fit?
What are the dangers in making changes to the standard translations?
What are the dangers in not making such changes?
See also: (Note I added these links after writing my article. My purpose is to uncover the meaning of the verse for myself and then check it later against what others have written.)
A series of articles on leaders and leadership in church life
This is the index to a series of articles on leaders and leadership in church life. The first part is an overview and explains how the idea for the series came about. The second post will examine part of a verse in Hebrews, often quoted to support hierarchical, structural, appointed leaders. Later posts will look at some other relevant New Testament verses.